Effect of improved navigation performance on the accuracy of implant placement in total hip arthroplasty with a CT-based navigation system, Nakahara, I., Kyo, T., Kuroda, Y. et al. J Artif Organs (2018).
A computed tomography (CT)-based navigation system is one of the support tools to place implant with appropriate alignment and position in total hip arthroplasty (THA). To determine whether the higher performance of the navigation would further improve the accuracy of implant placement in the clinical setting, we retrospectively compared the navigation accuracy of two different versions of a navigation system. The newer version of the navigation system had an upgraded optical sensor with superior positional accuracy. Navigation accuracy, defined as differences between postoperative measurements on CT images and intraoperative records on the navigation system, of 49 THAs performed with the newer version of the navigation system was compared with that of 49 THAs performed with the older version. With the newer version, the mean absolute accuracy (95% limits of agreement) of implant alignment was 1.2° (± 3.3°) for cup inclination, 1.0° (± 2.4°) for cup anteversion, 2.0° (± 4.9°) for stem anteversion, and 1.1° (± 2.4°) for stem valgus angle. The accuracy of the implant position was 1.5 mm (± 3.1 mm), 1.3 mm (± 3.0 mm), and 1.5 mm (± 3.1 mm) for cup x-, y-, and z-axes, respectively, 1.6 mm (± 3.2 mm), 1.4 mm (± 2.9 mm), and 1.5 mm (± 2.7 mm) for stem x-, y-, and z-axes, respectively, and 2.4 mm (± 4.5 mm) for leg length discrepancy. The values for the newer version were significantly more accurate with less variation compared to those of the older version. With upgraded navigation performance, more accurate implant placement was demonstrated in the clinical setting.
Digital Radiography in Total Hip Arthroplasty: Technique and Radiographic Results, by Penenberg et al. JBJS (2018) 100 (3): 226
Obtaining the ideal acetabular cup position in total hip arthroplasty remains a challenge. Advancements in digital radiography and image analysis software allow the assessment of the cup position during the surgical procedure. This study describes a validated technique for evaluating cup position during total hip arthroplasty using digital radiography.
Three hundred and sixty-nine consecutive patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty were prospectively enrolled. Preoperative supine anteroposterior pelvic radiographs were made. Intraoperative anteroposterior pelvic radiographs were made with the patient in the lateral decubitus position. Radiographic beam angle adjustments and operative table adjustments were made to approximate rotation and tilt of the preoperative radiograph. The target for cup position was 30° to 50° abduction and 15° to 35° anteversion. Intraoperative radiographic measurements were calculated and final cup position was determined after strict impingement and range-of-motion testing. Postoperative anteroposterior pelvic radiographs were made. Two independent observers remeasured all abduction and anteversion angles.
Of the cups, 97.8% were placed within 30° to 50° of abduction, with a mean angle (and standard deviation) of 39.5° ± 4.6°. The 2.2% of cups placed outside the target zone were placed so purposefully on the basis of intraoperative range-of-motion testing and patient factors, and 97.6% of cups were placed between 15° and 35° of anteversion, with a mean angle of 26.6° ± 4.7°. Twenty-eight percent of cups were repositioned on the basis of intraoperative measurements. Subluxation during range-of-motion testing occurred in 3% of hips despite acceptable measurements, necessitating cup repositioning. There was 1 early anterior dislocation.
Placing the acetabular component within a target range is a critical component to minimizing dislocation and polyethylene wear in total hip arthroplasty. Using digital radiography, we positioned the acetabular component in our desired target zone in 97.8% of cases and outside the target zone, purposefully, in 2.2% of cases. When used in conjunction with strict impingement testing, digital radiography allows for predictable cup placement in total hip arthroplasty.