Surgical correction of a symptomatic clavicular malunion requires simultaneous adjustment of the translation as well as the rotation in multiple planes. We describe a corrective osteotomy for a clavicle malunion using 3-D computer assisted preoperative-planning combined with patient-specific surgical guides, along with the benefits and disadvantages of this approach. This method enabled quantifying the malunion by comparing the malunited bone with the normal contralateral clavicle as a template. The postoperative results were encouraging with symmetrical shoulder anatomy and functional improvement. Therefore, we recommend this technique in patients with a symptomatic clavicle malunion, as it allows successful correction of the deformity.
The aim of this study was to identify the most accurate and reliable quantitative radiographic parameters for assessing vertical and horizontal instability in different Rockwood grades of acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) separations. Furthermore, the effect of projectional variation on these parameters was investigated in obtaining lateral Alexander view radiographs.
A Sawbone model of a scapula with clavicle was mounted on a holding device, and acromioclavicular dislocations as per the Rockwood classification system were simulated with the addition of horizontal posterior displacement. Projectional variations for each injury type were performed by tilting/rotating the Sawbone construct in the coronal, sagittal or axial plane. Radiographic imaging in the form of an anterior–posterior Zanca view and a lateral Alexander view were taken for each injury type and each projectional variation. Five newly defined radiographic parameters for assessing horizontal and vertical displacement as well as commonly used coracoclavicular distance view were measured. Reliability, validity and the effect of projectional variation were investigated for these radiographic measurements.
All radiographic parameters showed excellent intra- and interobserver reliability. The validity was excellent for the acromial centre line to dorsal clavicle (AC–DC) in vertical displacement and for the glenoid centre line to posterior clavicle (GC–PC) in horizontal displacement, whilst the remaining measurements showed moderate validity. For AC–DC and GC–PC, convergent validity expressed strong correlation to the effective distance and discriminant validity demonstrated its ability to differentiate between various grades of ACJ dislocations. The effect of projectional variation increased with the degree of deviation and was maximal (3 mm) for AC–DC in 20° anteverted malpositioning and for GC–PC in 20° retroverted malpositioning.
AC–DC and the GC–PC are two novel quantitative radiographic parameters of vertical and horizontal instability in ACJ dislocations that demonstrate excellent reliability and validity with reasonable inertness to malpositioning. The use of AC–DC for assessing vertical displacement and GC–PC for assessing horizontal displacement in a single Alexander view is recommended to guide the appropriate management of ACJ dislocations. A better appreciation of the degree of horizontal instability, especially in lower Rockwood grades (II, III) of ACJ dislocations, may improve management of these controversial injuries.
The Latarjet procedure has shown its efficiency for the treatment of anterior shoulder dislocation. The success of this technique depends on the correct positioning and fusion of the bone block. The length of the screws that fix the bone block can be a problem. They can increase the risk of non-union if too short or be the cause of nerve lesion or soft tissue discomfort if too long. Suprascapular nerve injuries have been reported during shoulder stabilisation surgery up to 6 % of the case. Bone block non-union depending on the series is found around 20 % of the cases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of this CT preoperative planning to predict optimal screws length. The clinical importance of this study lies in the observation that it is the first study to evaluate the efficiency of CT planning to predict screw length.
Inclusion criteria were patients with chronic anterior instability of the shoulder with an ISIS superior to 4. Exclusion criteria were patients with multidirectional instability or any previous surgery on this shoulder. Thirty patients were included prospectively, 11 of them went threw a CT planning, before their arthroscopic Latarjet. Optimal length of both screws was calculated, adding the size of the coracoid at 5 and 15 mm from the tip to the glenoid. Thirty-two-mm screws were used for patients without planning. On a post-operative CT scan with 3D reconstruction, the distance between the screw tip and the posterior cortex was measured. A one-sample Wilcoxon test was used to compare the distance from the tip of the screw to an acceptable positioning of ±2 mm from the posterior cortex.
In the group without planning, screw 1 tended to differ from the acceptable positioning: mean 3.44 mm ± 3.13, med 2.9 mm, q1; q3 [0.6; 4.75] p = 0.1118, and screw 2 differed significantly from the acceptable position: mean 4.83 mm ± 4.11, med 3.7 mm, q1; q3 [1.7; 5.45] p = 0.0045. In the group with planning, position of screw 1 or 2 showed no significant difference from the acceptable position: mean 2.45 mm ± 2.07 med 1.8 mm, q1; q3 [1; 3.3] p = 1; mean 2.75 mm ± 2.32 med 2.3 mm, q1; q3 [1.25; 3.8] p = 0.5631.
Unplanned Latarjet can lead to inaccurate screw length especially in the lower screw and can increase the risk of non-union and nerve damage. The clinical relevance of this article is that CT planning of screw length before surgery showed good results on post-operative CT.
A detailed structural anatomy of the posterosuperior shoulder capsule and “glenocapsular ligament” is still rather unknown. The purpose of this study was meticulously to investigate and describe the structure and blood supply of the glenocapsular ligament on the posterosuperior shoulder joint capsule.
Sixteen fixed and twelve fresh cadaveric shoulder specimens with a mean age of 73.4 (±6.4) years were analysed. Dissection without arterial injection was performed on the 16 fixed specimens—using an alcohol–formalin–glycerol solution. Before dissection, the 12 fresh specimens received of arterial injection a 10% aqueous dispersion of latex solution. After the injection, these shoulders were also fixed in an alcohol–formalin–glycerol solution.
The glenocapsular ligament was found in all 28 specimens. Single or double parallel-running bundles of connective tissue fibres were found to form a capsular-ligamentous structure on the posterosuperior part of the joint capsule. One part of the ligament was mediosuperior, another posterosuperior. The mediosuperior part varied in shape, and in 12 of 28 cases, it was absent. The glenocapsular ligament arose from the supraglenoid tubercle and posterior part of the collum scapulae and inserted into the semicircular humeral ligament. The posterior ascending branch of the circumflex scapular artery directly fed small branches laterally and medially to the joint capsule, supplying the glenocapsular ligament and the deep layer of the joint capsule.
The glenocapsular ligament is a constant anatomical structure that consists of one or two different parts. The glenocapsular ligament and the posterosuperior part of the joint capsule appear well vascularized via the posterior ascending branch of the circumflex scapular artery.
It is the hope of the authors that this anatomical study can help surgeons who perform open or arthroscopic surgery to the posterior part of the shoulder. Knowledge of the vascular anatomy presented in this study may be especially important when incisions are made to the posterior part of the shoulder, and should minimize the risk of complications.