A computed tomography (CT)-based navigation system is one of the support tools to place implant with appropriate alignment and position in total hip arthroplasty (THA). To determine whether the higher performance of the navigation would further improve the accuracy of implant placement in the clinical setting, we retrospectively compared the navigation accuracy of two different versions of a navigation system. The newer version of the navigation system had an upgraded optical sensor with superior positional accuracy. Navigation accuracy, defined as differences between postoperative measurements on CT images and intraoperative records on the navigation system, of 49 THAs performed with the newer version of the navigation system was compared with that of 49 THAs performed with the older version. With the newer version, the mean absolute accuracy (95% limits of agreement) of implant alignment was 1.2° (± 3.3°) for cup inclination, 1.0° (± 2.4°) for cup anteversion, 2.0° (± 4.9°) for stem anteversion, and 1.1° (± 2.4°) for stem valgus angle. The accuracy of the implant position was 1.5 mm (± 3.1 mm), 1.3 mm (± 3.0 mm), and 1.5 mm (± 3.1 mm) for cup x-, y-, and z-axes, respectively, 1.6 mm (± 3.2 mm), 1.4 mm (± 2.9 mm), and 1.5 mm (± 2.7 mm) for stem x-, y-, and z-axes, respectively, and 2.4 mm (± 4.5 mm) for leg length discrepancy. The values for the newer version were significantly more accurate with less variation compared to those of the older version. With upgraded navigation performance, more accurate implant placement was demonstrated in the clinical setting.
This paper describes an extensile surgical approach to the distal femur, which incorporates the medial parapatellar arthrotomy. This extensile exposure serves as an anterior utility approach to the knee, allowing the surgeon access to all aspects of the anterior knee and near circumferential access to the distal femur. Reported indications for access to this region include: tumor resection, difficult primary arthroplasty and revision arthroplasty of the knee, and intra-articular and extra-articular fractures of the distal femur. Despite adequate working knowledge of the standard medial parapatellar approach to the knee, the extensile approach is seldom required and, as a result, orthopedic trainees and practising orthopedic surgeons may not be familiar with the musculotendonous junctions that occur in the quadriceps tendon. This report describes a novel surgical approach and the relevant anatomy through a series of detailed clinical and fresh cadaveric dissections. A previously undescribed anatomic landmark is demonstrated through photographs and cadaveric variation studies, which may help guide the surgeon in defining crucial planes.
Metastases to distant organs are a frequent occurrence in cancer diseases. The skeletal system, especially the spine, is one such organ. The objective of this study was to apply a numerical modeling, using a finite element method (FEM), for the evaluation of deformation and stress in lumbar spine in bone metastases to the spine. We investigated 20 patients (10 women and 10 men) aged 38–81 years. In women, osteolytic lesions in lumbar spine accompanied breast cancer, in men it was prostate cancer. Geometry of FEM models were built based on CT scans of metastatic lumbar spine. We made the models for osteolytic metastases, osteosclerotic metastases, and metastases after surgery. Images were compared. We found a considerable concentration of strain, especially located in the posterior part of the vertebral body. In osteolytic lesions, the strain was located below the vertebral body with metastases. In osteosclerotic lesions, the strain was located in the anterior and posterior parts in and below the vertebral body with metastases. Surgery abolished the pathological strain. We conclude that metastases to the lumbar spine introduce a pathological strain on the lumbar body. The immobilization of the vertebral body around fractures abolished the strain.